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Some articles influencing and supporting  the DRS approach for dealing with dyslexia and other neurodevelopmental disorders

O’Connor, P.D., Sofo, F., Kendall, L., & Olsen, G. (1990).Reading disabilities and the effects of coloured filters.Journal of Learning Disabilities. 23(10): 597-603, 620. Shows improvements of 6.6 months in rate, 6.9 months in accuracy, and 19 months in comprehension after a 2 week period of using the correct overlays


Farmer, M. E., & Klein, R. M. (1995). The evidence for a temporal processing deficit linked to dyslexia: A review. Psychonomic bulletin & review, 2(4), 460–493.    A temporal processing deficit (defect in perceiving rapidly changing auditory signals) does appear to be present in many developmental dyslexics

Morton, John & Frith, U.. (1995). Causal modelling a structural approach to developmental psychopathology. Manual Dev. Psychopathol.. 1. H  Important to look at more than observable behaviour.  


Heath, S. M., Hogben, J. H., & Clark, C. D. (1999). Auditory temporal processing in disabled readers with and without oral language delay. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines, 40(4), 637–647. Some dyslexics have issues with auditory processing.


John Stein, Magdalen College, Oxford University (2006) Dietary supplements –myth or magic, the neural basis of dyslexia Presentation to De Montford University,. Sensorimotor Basis of Dyslexia • Low visual magnocellular sensitivity Î orthographic weakness • Low auditory magnocellular sensitivity Î phonological problems • Low motor magnocellular function Î incoordination, poor balance. Omega 3 EPA supplements can help children to improve concentration, reading and antisocial behaviour (RCTs)


Overy, K., Nicolson, R. I., Fawcett, A. J., & Clarke, E. F. (2003). Dyslexia and music: measuring musical timing skills. Dyslexia (Chichester, England), 9(1), 18–36. Timing is a difficulty area for dyslexic children, and suggests that rhythm skills and rapid skills may need particular attention.


Noble, J., Orton, M., Irlen, S., & Robinson, G. (2004) A controlled field study of the use of coloured overlays on reading achievement. Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities. 9(2) 14-22. Improvements of between 1 year and 2 months and 2 years and 8 months after using overlays for 3 months.


Valdois, S., Bosse, M. L., & Tainturier, M. J. (2004). The cognitive deficits responsible for developmental dyslexia: review of evidence for a selective visual attentional disorder. Dyslexia (Chichester, England), 10(4), 339–363. Phonological and visual attentional processing skills contribute independently to reading performance.


Legge, G. E., Cheung, S. H., Yu, D., Chung, S. T., Lee, H. W., & Owens, D. P. (2007). The case for the visual span as a sensory bottleneck in reading. Journal of vision, 7(2), 1–15. Evidence for the visual span as a determinant of reading speed implies the existence of a bottom-up, sensory limitation on reading, distinct from attentional, motor, or linguistic influences.


Katzir, T., Kim, Y-S, Wolf, M., Morris, R. & Lovett, M. (2008). The varieties of pathways to dysfluent reading: Comparing subtypes of children with dyslexia at letter, word and connected-text reading. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41(1), 47-66.   Different subtypes exhibited different reading profiles and the different possible routes to dysfluency in reading.


Reiersen, A. M., & Todd, R. D. (2008). Co-occurrence of ADHD and autism spectrum disorders: phenomenology and treatment. Expert review of neurotherapeutics, 8(4), 657–669.  Co-occurrences of symptoms are important since children with ASD in addition to ADHD symptoms may respond poorly to standard ADHD treatments or have increased side effects


Shaywitz, S. E., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2008). Paying attention to reading: the neurobiology of reading and dyslexia. Development and psychopathology, 20(4), 1329–1349.  Reading fluency requires more than phonological training. Fluency requires additional cognitive processes, especially attention.


Wright, Craig M. and Conlon, Elizabeth G.(2009)'Auditory and Visual Processing in Children With Dyslexia', Developmental Neuropsychology,34:3,330 — 355 About 30% of children with dyslexia were found to have sensory deficits.


Anna HatzidakiMaria GianneliEftichis PetrakisNikolaos MakaronasIoannis M. Aslanides, (2010) Reading and visual processing in Greek dyslexic children: an eye-movement study, Dyslexia Volume17, Issue1 February 2011 Pages 85-104  Dyslexic participants were found to be able to process fewer stimuli (i.e., letters) at each fixation than non-dyslexic.


Quintas, V. G., Attoni, T. M., Keske-Soares, M., & Mezzomo, C. L. (2010). Auditory processing in children with normal and disordered speech. Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology, 76(6), 718–722.   Children with disordered speech acquisition scored statically worse in measures of auditory processing:


Eissa, Mai. (2010). Behavioral and Emotional Problems Associated with Dyslexia in Adolescence. Current Psychiatry. 17. 17-25. T1  - Behavioral and Emotional Problems Associated with Dyslexia in Adolescence   School achievement, lower feeling of well-being, externalizing and internalizing symptoms, withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety/ depression, social problems, thought problems, aggression and delinquent behaviour significantly higher in poor than typical readers.


Huss, M., Verney, J. P., Fosker, T., Mead, N., & Goswami, U. (2011). Music, rhythm, rise time perception and developmental dyslexia: perception of musical meter predicts reading and phonology. Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior, 47(6), 674–689.


Bavelier, D., Green, C. S., & Seidenberg, M. S. (2013). Cognitive development: gaming your way out of dyslexia?. Current biology : CB, 23(7), R282–R283. Need the type of game to be specified.


 Eicher, J. D., & Gruen, J. R. (2015). Language impairment and dyslexia genes influence language skills in children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism Research, 8(2), 229–234.  LI and dyslexia genes also contribute to language traits in children with ASD. These associations add to the growing literature of generalist genes that contribute to multiple related neurobehavioral traits.


Bonacina, S., Cancer, A., Lanzi, P. L., Lorusso, M. L., & Antonietti, A. (2015). Improving reading skills in students with dyslexia: the efficacy of a sublexical training with rhythmic background. Frontiers in psychology, 6, 1510.


Franceschini, S., Gori, S., Ruffino, M., Viola, S., Molteni, M., & Facoetti, A. (2013). Action video games make dyslexic children read better. Current biology: CB, 23(6), 462–466.  This happened with Italian children but was not replicated for Polish speakers.


Hornickel, J., & Kraus, N. (2013). Unstable representation of sound: a biological marker of dyslexia. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 33(8), 3500–3504. Poor readers have significantly more variable auditory brainstem responses to speech than do good readers, independent of resting neurophysiological noise levels. 


McNorgan, C., Randazzo-Wagner, M., & Booth, J. R. (2013). Cross-modal integration in the brain is related to phonological awareness only in typical readers, not in those with reading difficulty. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 7, 388. Fluent reading requires successfully mapping between visual orthographic and auditory- an intrinsically cross-modal process. The core deficit underlying reading difficulties may be a failure to integrate orthographic and phonological information


Finn, E. S., Shen, X., Holahan, J. M., Scheinost, D., Lacadie, C., Papademetris, X., Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B. A., & Constable, R. T. (2014). Disruption of functional networks in dyslexia: a whole-brain, data-driven analysis of connectivity. Biological psychiatry, 76(5), 397–404. Highly significant differences in functional connectivity between groups, suggesting that dyslexia is not simply attributable to dysfunction in a few specific language nodes.


Hahn, N., Foxe, J. J., & Molholm, S. (2014). Impairments of multisensory integration and cross-sensory learning as pathways to dyslexia. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 47, 384–392. Substantial support for multisensory deficits in dyslexia.


Kronschnabel, J., Brem, S., Maurer, U., & Brandeis, D. (2014). The level of audiovisual print-speech integration deficits in dyslexia. Neuropsychologia, 62, 245–261.  In impaired readers  grapho-phonological conversion is effortful and inefficient, although basic audiovisual mechanisms seem intact. Phonological deficit might be explained by impaired audiovisual integration at a phonetic level,


Germano GD, Reilhac C, Capellini SA, Valdois S. The phonological and visual basis of developmental dyslexia in Brazilian Portuguese reading children. Front Psychol. 2014;5:1169. Published 2014 Oct 14. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01169   Two subsets of children with developmental dyslexia were identified as having a signal cognitive disorder phonological or visual. Another group exhibited a double deficit and a few children showed no visual or phonological disorder.


Gori, S., & Facoetti, A. (2015). How the visual aspects can be crucial in reading acquisition? The intriguing case of crowding and developmental dyslexia. Journal of vision, 15(1), 15.1.8.  The core neural deficit underlying Developmental Dysleiais the fundamental multimodal attentional mechanism (which affects both visual and auditory perception) that mediates efficient orthographic–phonological binding. The visual aspects play a crucial role, and based on the scientific evidence, it is now time to seriously evaluate them even before reading acquisition.


Lawton T. (2016). Improving Dorsal Stream Function in Dyslexics by Training Figure/Ground Motion Discrimination Improves Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 10, 397. Training on figure-ground discrimination of a test pattern moving left or right relative to a stationary background pattern is the key for reading acquisition to happen at an efficient speed….faulty timing in synchronizing the activity of magnocellular with parvocellular visual pathways in the dorsal stream is a fundamental cause of dyslexia.


Smith, E., Zhang, S., & Bennetto, L. (2017). Temporal synchrony and audiovisual integration of speech and object stimuli in autism. Research in autism spectrum disorders, 39, 11–19.    Individuals with ASD showed less tolerance of asynchrony for speech stimuli compared to object stimuli.


The Seeds of Literacy Program - An aim to diagnosing dyslexia at the earliest opportunity. It may be possible to identify newborn babies who will grow up to be dyslexic ttps://

Carroll, J. M., & Breadmore, H. L. (2018). Not all phonological awareness deficits are created equal: evidence from a comparison between children with Otitis Media and poor readers. Developmental science, 21(3), e12588.   Children with a history of ear infections (OM) show a wide range of literacy outcomes, with mean literacy and phonological awareness scores below CA controls.


Edwards ES, Burke K, Booth JR, McNorgan C (2018) Dyslexia on a continuum: A complex network approach. PLOS ONE 13(12): e0208923. A lack of coordinated processing between the neural regions involved in phonological and orthographic processing contributes towards reading difficulty.


Knight, C. What is dyslexia? An exploration of the relationship between teachers' understandings of dyslexia and their training experiences. Dyslexia. 2018; 24: 207–219. Most teachers understand dyslexia in terms of how it affects pupils at the behavioural level. 


Stein J. (2018). What is Developmental Dyslexia?. Brain sciences, 8(2), 26.   Phonological theory is set at too high a cognitive level to be explanatory; we need to understand the pathophysiological visual and auditory mechanisms that cause children’s phonological problems.


Monroy C, Shafto C, Castellanos I, Bergeson T, Houston D. Visual habituation in deaf and hearing infants. PLoS One. 2019;14(2):e0209265. Published 2019 Feb 6. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0209265. Hearing loss in children affects a range of non-skills, including working memory, sequence processing, visual attention and motor coordination.


Peters, L., & Ansari, D. (2019). Are specific learning disorders truly specific, and are they disorders? Trends in neuroscience and education, 17, 100115.   Overcome problems associated with a categorical approach by taking into account interacting factors at multiple levels of analysis.


Tschentscher, N., Ruisinger, A., Blank, H., Díaz, B., & von Kriegstein, K. (2019). Reduced Structural Connectivity Between Left Auditory Thalamus and the Motion-Sensitive Planum Temporale in Developmental Dyslexia. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 39(9), 1720–1732.  Adult white male dyslexics had reduced white matter connectivity in a cortico-thalamic auditory pathway.


All-Party Parliamentary Group for Dyslexia and other SpLDs Report  2019 The human cost of dyslexia  The emotional and psychological impact of poorly supported dyslexia


Huang, M., Liang, C., Li, S., Zhang, J., Guo, D., Zhao, B., Liu, Y., Peng, Y., Xu, J., Liu, W., Guo, G., & Shi, L. (2020). Two Autism/Dyslexia Linked Variations of DOCK4 Disrupt the Gene Function on Rac1/Rap1 Activation, Neurite Outgrowth, and Synapse Development. Frontiers in cellular neuroscience, 13, 577. There is common molecular pathophysiology of ASD and dyslexia.


Meilleur, A., Foster, N. E. V., Coll, S. M., Brambati, S. M., & Hyde, K. L. (2020). Unisensory and multisensory temporal processing in autism and dyslexia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 116, 44–63. Temporal processing was impaired for both ASD and DD, and unisensory auditory, visual and tactile processing were all impaired in Developmental Dyslexia


Tambyraja, S. R., Farquharson, K., & Justice, L. (2020). Reading Risk in Children With Speech Sound Disorder: Prevalence, Persistence, and Predictors. Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR, 63(11), 3714–3726.   25% of children receiving school-based speech therapy for an SSD exhibited concomitant deficits in word decoding  and  are at increased risk for reading difficulties.


Gabay, Y., & Holt, L. L. (2021). Adaptive Plasticity Under Adverse Listening Conditions is Disrupted in Developmental Dyslexia. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS, 27(1), 12–22.  Less efficient adaptive plasticity to speech distortions may impact the ability of individuals with dyslexia to deal with variability arising from sources like acoustic noise and foreign-accented speech.


Habib M. (2021). The Neurological Basis of Developmental Dyslexia and Related Disorders: A Reappraisal of the Temporal Hypothesis, Twenty Years on. Brain sciences, 11(6), 708.   Long-range connectivity between several brain areas crucial for language as well as non-language functions in both hemispheres;  inaccurate processing of time-dependent information in its various dimensions, from the most elementary perceptual aspects to more sophisticated cognitive contents affects dyslexia


Manning, C., Hassall, C. D., Hunt, L. T., Norcia, A. M., Wagenmakers, E. J., Snowling, M. J., Scerif, G., & Evans, N. J. (2022). Visual Motion and Decision-Making in Dyslexia: Reduced Accumulation of Sensory Evidence and Related Neural Dynamics. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 42(1), 121–134.  Children with dyslexia tend to be slower to extract sensory evidence from global motion displays.


Kertész, C., & Honbolygó, F. (2023). First school year tapping predicts children's third-grade literacy skills. Scientific reports, 13(1), 2298.   Sensorimotor synchronization task a potentially effective instrument for predicting literacy outcomes, and a useful tool for early screening of reading difficulties.


Wu, H., Lu, H., Lin, Q., Zhang, Y., & Liu, Q. (2023). Reduced audiovisual temporal sensitivity in Chinese children with dyslexia. Frontiers in psychology, 14, 1126720.   Chinese children with dyslexia have lower audiovisual temporal sensitivity than their peers.

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